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ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN
HISTORICAL TIMELINE DETAILS IN THE YEAR 2000

Our victories, obstacles and leaders


Discover additional specific info on the many links (outlined in "red" or "blue") listed below


2000 
NORMAN BAY IS NEW MEXICO'S US ATTORNEY

Attorney General Janet Reno appointed Chinese American
Norman Bay on March 7 as the interim U.S. attorney in New Mexico -- the same office that will prosecute indicted nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee. Bay is the first Chinese American and the second Asian American to be named an U.S. attorney, following Michael Yamaguchi, who served in the Northern California office from 1993 to 1998. Before moving to New Mexico in 1995, Bay worked as an assistant U.S. attorney in Washington, D.C., a clerk for the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and a legal advisor in the State Department. He went to school at Dartmouth College and later at Harvard Law School.

2000 
1ST APA CABINET MEMBER - NORMAN MINETA

Norman Minetta's career started in 1971 and on July 21, 2000 was confirmed as being the first Asian American to hold a Cabinet Post - a historical highlight and hopefully the start of Asian Americans to attain "first class citizenship."

2000 
DR. WEN HO LEE IS FREE

Dr. Lee is free - after many delays. Read what the judge stated on Sept. 19 by clicking HERE, read Nightline's transcript by clicking HERE and visit the Wen Ho Lee site for a transcript of his interview with the FBI by clicking HERE

2000 
TROUBLES AT AONLINE

Magazine publisher
Amedia Inc.has laid off its Los Angeles & San Francisco Internet staff. "Inside Asian America" reported that layoffs were in preparation of a potential merger of with Click2Asia. Recent times were "beset with late or bouncing checks" and the purchase of Classified Records.

2000 
US CENSUS BUREAU EXPRESSES REGRETS

The Census Bureau expressed its regrets once again for providing information that helped the military ferret out and detain Japanese Americans during World War II, and stressed such breaches in confidentiality will never happen again.

2000 
ASIAN AMERICANS INCREASED PERCENTAGE IN TOP U.C. CAMPUSES

Recent admission figures show that Asian Americans are the largest ethnic group in the freshmen class of Berkeley, UCLA, San Diego, Irvine, and Riverside. The average composite SAT score for UCLA is 1,328 and the average high school GPA is 4.17. (note: UC officials have determined that the vast majority who did not report racial information were white or Asian American.) Source: University of California Compiled by MALOY MOORE / Los Angeles Times

2000 
APPEAL COURT LIMIT IMMIGRANT DETAINMENT

The
9th U.S. Circuit court of Appeals in San Francisco California has asserted that the government does not have the right to indefinitely detain immigrants convicted of crimes who have been ordered deported but whose home countries won't accept them. Currently affects the case of Kim Ho Ma, 22, a Cambodian immigrant in the Seattle area who was convicted at the age of 17 of manslaughter in a gang-related shooting and was ordered deported by a 1996 immigration reform law. (San Jose Mercury News)

2000 
NORMAL TRADE RELATIONS WITH CHINA

Normal Trade Relations Measure is passed by the
Senate. The opening of a market of 150 million telecommunication lines and everyone from semiconductor manufacturers to software makers is opened.

2000 
JONG LEE - VICTIM OF A VIOLENT CRIME

Jong Lee was the victim of a violent crime without no reason, but the chilling attack was caught on
videotape. Sinyen Ling, a legal expert who tracks hate crimes for the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, said she is noticing a nationwide pattern of Asians being singled out for violent crimes. Click HERE for more info.

2000 
APA HATE CRIMES IN PITTSBURGH

In April at
Pittsburgh, three Asian Americans - Tony Pham, a Vietnamese American; Jerry Sun, a Chinese American; and Anil Thakur, a South Asian - were killed by a gunman named Richard Baumhammers, who, because he did not like immigrants to come to America, decided to shoot some. Two other victims also died - Nikki Gordon, a Jewish woman; and Gary Lee, an African American. Sandip Patel, also a South Asian, fortunately survived but is permanently paralyzed.

2000 
80-20 SUPPORTS GORE & THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY

The first major Asian American PAC group (
80-20) decided to support the Democratic Party and Vice-President Gore in the 2000 election. The mostly Chinese immigrant delegates heard from representatives of the Democratic and Republican parties to decide on where to place their support. This noteworthy event was covered by Asian and American press. Articles were written at the World Journal, in the Bay Area's San Jose Mercury, from Connie Kang at the L.A. Times and at the San Francisco Chronicle.

One of the delegates - Shaie-Mei Temple of New Orleans, president of that city's chapter of the Organization of Chinese Americans and of Asian Bayou website, said with tears in her eyes, ``The Asian Exclusion Act has been repealed for more than 50 years yet the shadow looms large.'' The Asian Exclusion Act of 1924 was one of a series of laws enacted to restrict immigration by Chinese and other Asians.

80-20's reasoning was explained by the following: "Despite Gore's implication in fundraising scandals that some participants say embarrassed them into political activism, delegates at the meeting chose the Democrat because his representatives indicated a commitment to 80-20's goals of greater participation in government at all levels and a federal investigation of alleged workplace discrimination against Americans of Asian heritage." A possible accurate observation and assessment was made by UCLA political scientist Don T. Nakanishi, who had come to observe the events, said he was impressed by the turnout. But he also injected a sobering note: "I think the two major political parties are going to see whether they [80-20] can really deliver," said Nakanishi, director of UCLA's Asian American Studies Center.

2000 
ASIAN AMERICAN WWII WAR HEROES HONORED - FINALLY!

On June 21, 21 (19 were of Japanese ancestry, 1 of Chinese ancestry, and 1 of Filipino ancestry) Asian American heroes of World War II received the Medal of Honor, the nation's highest military accolade, in a White House ceremony. Only 441 such awards were given for that conflict. The belated tribute caps an effort ordered by Congress to identify Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders who had won the second-highest medal, the Distinguished Service Cross and to recommend Medal of Honor upgrades to President Clinton in deserving cases. Sen. Daniel Akaka, D-Hawaii sponsored the 1996 law that ordered the medal study. The project was patterned on an Army study that resulted in Medals of Honor for seven black World War II soldiers in 1997. Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii was among the roughly five recipients who are still living.

All of the honorees were the Japanese-Americans who served with the Army's much-decorated 442nd Regimental Combat Team or 100th Infantry Battalion. The others cited were killed in action or have died since the war, and family members will accept the posthumous awards. (Side note: Colonel Young Oak Kim, one of the most highly decorated Asian American soldiers in WWII, did not receive the MOH (although he was one of those on the list being reviewed)

Soldiers receiving the Medal of Honor today are:
  • Daniel K. Inouye (Honolulu, HI) - Second lieutenant, E Company, 2nd Battalion, 442nd RCT on April 21, 1945 at San Terenzo, Italy ...Inouye directed his platoon through a hail of gunfire, captured an artillery and mortar observation post, and brought his men to within 40 yards of the main enemy force. Although wounded, he continued to rake other positions until his right arm was shattered by an exploding German rifle grenade. He pried a grenade he was about to throw from his right hand, and tossed it with his left hand and continued to direct his platoon until resistance was broken where 25 Germans were killed and eight others captured.
  • Kaoru Moto (Makawao, Maui) - Private First Class, C Company, 100th Battalion on July 7, 1944 at Castellina, Italy ...Attacked a machine-gun nest, took a prisoner, then captured a house used as an observation post. Wounded, he continued to defend the position from being retaken by the Germans. Later, he spotted another machine-gun nest and opened fire, wounding two Germans and capturing several others. Died in 1992.
  • Yukio Okutsu (Hilo, Hawaii) - Technical sergeant, F Company, 2nd Battalion, 42nd RCT on April 7, 1945, at Mt. Belvedere, Italy ...While his platoon was bogged down by fire from three machine guns, Okutsu crawled through heavy fire to destroy three machine gun nests and despite by a shot that glanced off his helmet - recovered and secured the area that allowed his platoon to resume its assault.
  • Robert Kuroda (Aiea, HI) - Staff sergeant, H Company, 2nd Battalion, 442nd RCT on Oct. 20, 1944 at Bruyeres, France ...Attacked a machine-gun nest, killing three Germans with a grenade, and killed or wounded three others with his rifle. Killed by a sniper while advancing on a second machine-gun nest. Posthumous.
  • Francis Brown Wai (Honolulu, HI) - Captain, 34th Division on Oct. 20, 1944 at Leyte, Philippines ... Finding the first four waves of a beach assault pinned down, Wai rallied the soldiers and moved them inland. Killed while leading an assault on a Japanese pillbox. Posthumous.
  • Yeiki Kobashigawa (Waianae, HI) - Technical sergeant, B Company, 100th Battalion on June 2, 1944 at Lanuvio, Italy ...During an attack, his platoon came across a series of German machine-gun nests. He destroyed various machine gun nests and provided close supporting fire while his troup captured 4 prisoners. On the alert for other nests, he discovered four more machine guns and skillfully lead a squad in neutralizing two of them.
  • Barney Hajiro (Waipahu, HI) - Private First Class, I Company, 3rd Battalion, 442nd RCT, on Oct. 29, 1944 at Bruyeres and Biffontaine, France ...Hajiro, acting as a security guard on top of an embankment, observed a friendly unit under attack and killed the snipers. While volunterring for forward attack position at Belmont, his troup captured two light machine guns, two automatic rifles, four pistols, 10 rifles and a number of grenades. By his intrepid conduct, he was a defensive factor in the capture of "Suicide Hill."
  • Masato Nakae (Honolulu, HI) - Private First Class, A Company, 100th Battalion on Aug. 19, 1944 at Pisa, Italy ...Defending an outpost position, Nakae held back a probe by German forces. Wounded during a mortar barrage, he refused to leave and continued to fire, forcing the Germans to withdraw. Died in 1998.
  • Shinyei Nakamine (Waianae, HI) - Private, B Company, 100th Battalion on June 2, 1944 at La Torreto, Italy ... Killed three Germans and captured two in taking out a machine-gun nest. Later in the day, he led another attack that took out another machine-gun nest. Spotting a third machine-gun emplacement, he led another charge and was killed. Posthumous.
  • Allan Ohata (Honolulu, HI) - Staff sergeant, B Company, 100th Battalion on Nov. 25, 1943 at Cerasuolo, Italy ...In a fight with German soldiers, Ohata and Mikio Hasemoto (see story below) killed 27 soldiers, wounded one and took another prisoner. Later, the enemy attacked again; four soldiers were killed and three were wounded. Died in 1997.
  • Mikio Hasemoto (Honolulu, HI) - Private, B Company, 100th Battalion on Nov. 23, 1943 at Cerasuolo, Italy ...Killed fighting with Ohata. Responsible for killing 27 Germans in one battle and wounding three.
  • Shizuya Hayashi (Pearl City, HI) - Private, A Company, 100th Battalion on Nov. 29, 1943 at Cerasuolo, Italy ...During an assault, Hayashi rose alone in the face of grenade, rifle and machine-gun fire, charged the machine-gun nest while killing seven men and two more as they fled. When an enemy anti-aircraft position opened fire on the platoon, Hayashi returned fire, killing nine, taking four prisoners and forcing the remainder of the force to flee from the hill.
  • George Sakato, Oct. 29, 1944, Biffontaine, France: His squad pinned down, he rose and led a charge that destroyed a German stronghold. RANK: PRIVATE -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: DENVER
  • Rudolph Davila, May 28, 1944, Artena, Italy: Saved 130 riflemen by silencing several machine guns. RANK: STAFF SERGEANT -- UNIT: THIRD ARMY -- HOMETOWN: VISTA, CALIF.
  • Frank Ono, July 4, 1944, Castellina, Italy: Took out a machine-gun nest, killed a sniper and helped rescue a wounded leader. Posthumous. RANK: PRIVATE FIRST CLASS -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: NORTH JUDSON, IND.
  • Kiyoshi Muranaga, June 26, 1944, Suvereto, Italy: Manning a 60-mm mortar alone, he produced such accurate fire that the enemy's anti-personnel and anti-tank 88-mm gun withdrew. Posthumous. RANK: PRIVATE FIRST CLASS -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: AMECHE, COLO.
  • Joe Hayashi, April 22, 1945, near Mt. Nebbione, Italy: Killed while knocking out two machine-gun nests. RANK: PRIVATE FIRST CLASS -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: PASADENA, CALIF.
  • William Nakamura, July 4, 1944, Castellina, Italy: Attacked a machine-gun nest that pinned down his platoon and was killed when the Germans attacked his platoon as it withdrew. RANK: PRIVATE FIRST CLASS -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: HUNT, IDAHO
  • Kazuo Otani, July 15, 1944, Pieve di S. Luce, Italy: While covering his platoon, he drew enemy fire and fought off a German counterattack. Killed while dressing the wounds of a fellow soldier. RANK: STAFF SERGEANT -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: VISALIA, CALIF.
  • Joe Nishimoto, Nov. 7, 1944, La Housssiere, France: Killed after being responsible for breaking a three-day stalemate against German forces. RANK: PRIVATE -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: FRESNO, CALIF.
  • Ted Tanouye, July 7, 1944, Molina A Ventoabbto, Italy: Wounded in the battle, he stayed through several firefights. Later died of his wounds. RANK: TECHNICAL SERGEANT -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: TORRANCE, CALIF.
  • James K. Okubo, Oct. 1944, Vosges Mountains, France: Over several days, rescued and delivered aid to soldiers of the Texas "Lost Battalion." RANK: TECHNICAL SERGEANT -- UNIT: 442ND -- HOMETOWN: BELLINGHAM, WASH.
Iloilo-born Army Sgt. Jose Calugas, Army Sgt. Leroy Mendonca and other Asian Americans were next. Seattle Times staff columnist Jean Godden mentioned on May 25, 1998 in her article Last Nod to Departed Neighbors: "Capt. Jose Calugas, holder of the Medal of Honor, died January 18. A mess sergeant serving in the Philippines on January 16, 1942, he voluntarily ran 1,000 yards across a shell-swept area to a gun position where all had been killed or wounded. He organized a volunteer squad, placing the gun back in commission and firing against the enemy, although the position remained under constant and heavy Japanese artillery fire. After a 27-year military career, he settled in Tacoma."

Other Asian Pacific Americans who were previously given the combat medal were Pfc. Sadao S. Munemori in 1945, Cpl. Hiroshi H. Miyamura in 1951, Pfc. Herbert K. Piliaau in 1951, Sfc. Rodney J. T. Yano in 1969 and Cpl. Terry T. Kawamura in 1969.

The Medal of Honor was created for the Civil War, and Congress made it a permanent decoration in 1863. Almost 3,400 men and one women have received the decoration for heroic actions in the nation's battle since that time. Source: U.S. Army Center of Military History.

The Nisei 442nd became the most decorated group of soldiers in American history, with 3,600 Purple Hearts and 810 Bronze Stars, among other awards. While the rest of the army had a 15 percent rate of front-line desertions, the Nisei 442nd had no known desertions. The Neisei soldiers' "reward" (when the war was over and they returned to their families) was to discover that they had lost their homes and businesses during their forced relocation!

2000 
DONG KINGMAN DIES!

Dong Kingman, son of Chinese immigrants, whose colourful watercolors were featured in museums, magazine covers, and movies died. His works have been exhibited in Moscow, Warsaw, Prague, Jakarta, Hong Kong, Paris and Rome, as well as in major U.S. cities. His work is represented in the permanent collections of such major museums as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, United Nations and the Whitney Museum in New York; the Art Institute of Chicago and dozens of other noted museums, public buildings and private collections. He was honored with the American Watercolor Society's Dolphin Award in 1989 - only the third time the award has been given in the society's 120-year history.

2000 
ELLERY CHUN, CREATOR OF THE ALOHA SHIRT, DIES AT 91

On May 16,
Ellery J. Chun died at the age of 91. Mr. Chun created the "Aloha Shirt" in 1931 and introduce the label 's immensely popular, distinctively bright and colorful Hawaiian attire in 1936. This Honolulu native, who majored in economics at Yale (class of 1931), saw the surfers and beachboys snapped up the bold, breezy styles while visiting Hollywood celebrities and other rich and famous ones began sailing home to display the new fashions. With the Great Depression of the 1930s, he needed new ideas to help generate business for the store, his wife said. "So he came up with this colorful aloha shirt." In 1991, the state Senate honored Chun for creating the aloha shirt, on the 60th anniversary of his landmark contribution to distinctive Hawaiian apparel and the state of Hawaii.

2000 
FIRST ASIAN AMERICAN "MS. CALIFORNIA"

Rita Ng, a 22 years old Stanford graduate (3.97 GPA), has been crowned Miss California and will be the state's representative at the Miss America pageant this October in Atlantic City, NJ. Her achievements include being one of Glamour magazine's "Top 10 College Women of the Year," chosen by USA Today as one of the nation's top undergraduates and Procter & Gamble's model in promoting beauty products. Her winnings include $13,000 in scholarship money and $5,000.

2000 
SEN. UNDERWOOD URGES WEN HO LEE INVESTIGATION

Congressman Robert Underwood urges President Clinton to establish an independent commission to investigate the Wen Ho Lee case.

2000 
1ST KOREAN CHRISTIANITY PROGRAM

Establishment of the nation's first scholarly program in the
Korean Christianity field was set-up by a four-year grant of $504,000 from the Henry Luce Foundation. It will probe such questions as why so many Koreans have defied Asia's historical ties and embraced Christianity.

2000 
FIRST ASIAN BROTHEL IN LAS VEGAS

"Metro vice Lt. Terry Davis said that was the first time he could recall that an illegal Asian-based brothel was discovered in Las Vegas." As part of "Operation Jade Blade" the FBI and Immigration and Naturalization Service, aided by Metro Police in Las Vegas, arrested five Las Vegans in running an illegal Asian-based brothel. The indictment alleged that they participated in a network of brothels involving Asian women who were smuggled into this country for a fee and forced into prostitution to repay their debts. Nevada's fast-growing Asian population, which has grown by 123.7 percent over the past 10 years (according to the U.S. Census Bureau) and.1999 Asian tourist figures (i.e. 478,000 from Japan, 85,000 from Taiwan, 75,000 from South Korea, 38,000 from Hong Kong and 18,000 from Singapore) makes prostitution a new reality. Click
HERE for more details.

2000 
SYNGMAN RHEE - PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH'S (USA) FIRST ASIAN AMERICAN MODERATOR

Rev.
Syngman Rhee was elected to the conservative Presbyterian Church's (U.S.A.) highest office and the first Asian American to hold the office of one of the US's largest churches in its 211-year history.

He currently serves as a Distinguished Visiting Professor of Mission and Evangelism at the Union Theological Seminary, as a Religious Advisory Member of the White House Initiative on Race Board, a member of the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus Institute and director of Asian American Ministry and Mission Center at the Union-Presbyterian School of Christian Education.

Prior to this academic engagement, Rhee served as the first Asian President of National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA, from 1992 to 1993. Throughout his life, Rhee has been deeply involved with issues of justice, reconciliation and peace.

After being ordained by Louisville Presbytery in 1960, he served as pastor of the Boston Presbyterian Church in Boston, KY, and of the Westminster Presbyterian Church in Louisville, KY. He was campus minister at University of Louisville where he served as the first faculty advisor to the Black Student Union, and joined the Civil Rights Movement. He has made more than 20 trips to the two Koreas since his first trip to North Korea in 1978 to help reconciliation in the Korean peninsula. Rhee holds a Ph.D. from the Chicago Theological Seminary, a Master of Sacred Theology from Yale Divinity School, and a Bachelor of Divinity from Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary.

The execution of his Presbyterian father (imprisoned and killed during the Korean Civil War) has continually been his life's driving focus. His three principal objectives will be 1) Upbuilding of the congregations, particularly the small congregations and renewal of our basic commitment in faith in every way possible 2) Continual emphasis in missions and in evangelism and 3) A spirit of reconciliation instead of polarization over issues.

2000 
SBA OUTREACH VIA CHINESE & JAPANESE WEB SITES

Online Women's Business Center provides info on state-of-the-art tools in Chinese and Japanese for business counseling for new small businesses. Special features include interactive mentoring, individual counseling, topic forums, and newsgroups. This action addresses a Presidential Executive Order to improve the quality of life of Asian Pacific Americans through federal programs. SBA, to bring awareness, signed agreements with National Coalition of Asian-Pacific American Community Development (CAPACD), Asian American Hotel Owners Association AAHOA), National Korean American Grocers Foundation (National KAGRO), National Federation of Filipino American Associations (NaFFAA) and Organization of Chinese Americans (OCA). Since 992, SBA-backed loans under the 7(a) and 504 loan programs to Asian-Pacific Americans have nearly quadrupled, from $568.5 million in FY 1992 to more than $2.13 billion in 1999. In 1992, loans to Asian-Pacific Americans represented 6 percent of the loans made by the SBA, and 9 percent of the total value of those loans. In 1999, SBA-backed loans to Asian-Pacific Americans represented 11 percent of the loans made and a full 18 percent of the total dollars lent. For more details, click HERE.

2000 
NATIONAL JAPANESE AMERICAN MEMORIAL

The $10.6-million park
memorial (which is located three blocks north of the U.S. Capitol and opened in November) honors those who were interned in the camps and who served with 3,000 Japanese American volunteers in the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. military history. In one of the great ironies of the war, members of the 442nd--many with relatives interned in the United States--helped liberate Jews in the German concentration camp of Dachau.

The centerpiece of the memorial is a 14-foot-long bronze sculpture of two cranes straining for freedom against the restraints of shackles and barbed wire. A low granite wall contains the names of the more than 800 Japanese Americans, many of them in the 442nd, who died for their country during the war. Rep. Robert T. Matsui (D-Sacramento), a former war internee, sponsored the 1996 law providing the site for the memorial. Nina Akamu, who sculpted the memorial's centerpiece, said she was inspired by the experience of her grandfather, the first Japanese American to die in an internment camp.

2000 
NATIONAL JAPANESE AMERICAN MEMORIAL OPENS

In November 2000,
President Bill Clinton announced a plan to preserve sites of camps where the U.S. government interned 120,000 Japanese-Americans during World War II. Americans, he said, must "never forget this sad chapter in our history." "We are diminished when any American is targeted unfairly because of his or her heritage" at the dedication. of a memorial to those interned and to the 33,000 Japanese-Americans who fought for the United States in the war. "This memorial and the internment sites are powerful reminders that stereotyping, discrimination, hatred and racism have no place in this country." The memorial near the Capitol is due to be completed in the spring, with stone panels devoted to each of the 10 camps.

2000
AA RACISM IN POLITICS

Asian-Americans are expressing outrage over a Republican Assembly (
Gerald N. Felando) candidate's campaign Web site, which pictures his Japanese-American opponent (George Nakano) in a martial arts robe holding a sword over his head. For further info, please click HERE.

2000
JOSEPH PARK STEPS DOWN

Kozmo.com's co-founder
Joseph Park has given up his CEO title but will remain chairman of the board. Action designed to boost the company's delayed IPO odds.

2000
DENNY'S LAWSUIT DISMISSED

A federal judge dismissed the
race discrimination lawsuit brought by nine Chinese and African Americans. U.S. District Judge Frederick Scullin said the former students failed to show they were denied seating or security services in dismissing the 1997 lawsuit.

2000
USS CHUNG HOON

The
USS Chung Hoon (a new guided missle destroyer) honor the late Rear Adm. Gordon Chung Hoon, who earned the Navy Cross and the Silver Star while commanding the USS Sigsbee destroyer during World War II.

2000
YOUGSU "ROCKY" KIM IS KILLED

Yongsu "Rocky" Kim, a prominent Korean-American businessman and political activist, was killed on October 30, 2000. Kim has worked with people from Gov. Gary Locke to many others in the Korean American community to see Asian Americans elected to public office.

2000
FILIPINO WAR VETERANS

Passage of
H.R.4635 authorizes a spending total of $106 billion, $6 million of which is earmarked for Filipino American veterans. Five million dollars is for full medical care, access to VA hospitals and compensation of up to $2,000 per month for veterans. The bill also set aside $500,000 for burial in national cemeteries, including funeral expenses of up to $300 for their families. The remaining $500,000 provides full hospital or nursing home care for veterans permanently disabled from war-related injuries or illnesses.

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